عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
At the beginning of the 5th century BC, in a small geographic part of ancient Greece, a civilized way of life in the form of the prominent organization of Police was constituted. This ancient land and its coastal shores were inhabited by various ethnic groups one of which called ‘Achaean’. A tribe of that ethnic group took the place of them in the region of ‘Hellas’ and from this point onwards, the Greeks called themselves ‘Hellenistic’. Surpassing the old world and the ‘dark ages’, original Hellenists established a brilliant civilization from the 5th century BC onwards. An articulated and regular organization was one of the prominent elements of Hellenistic culture, on which Greek education and upbringing founded.
After the conquests of Alexander, a blend of defeated nations’ culture and knowledge and Hellenistic civilization formed a new civilization, which is ascribed as hybrid Hellenistic (Heleni Maabi) against pure Hellenistic. One of the valuable elements in the hybrid Hellenistic, was natural philosophy, a philosophy which was common among thoughts of scientists and educated people all around the Greek Empire, and influenced the East and the West in various aspects till a few centuries AD. The reaction against it began in the Middle East and led to diminution of regressive thoughts toward the wisdom of Hellenism.