جامعه پژوهی فرهنگی

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری،جامعه‌شناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 استاد تمام، گروه علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 استادیار، پژوهشگاه علوم و فناوری اطلاعات ایران (ایرانداک)

4 استادیار، گروه علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه اصفهان

10.30465/scs.2021.35214.2372

چکیده

یکی از مباحث بسیار محبوب و شناخته‌شده در ادبیات جامعه‌شناسی نوین، رویکردهایی هستند که تحت عنوان "بیش‌ازانسان" مطرح شده‌اند. گستره‌ی این دیدگاه‌ها بسیار وسیع هستند؛ از جامعه‌شناسی کلاسیک گابریل تارد و مونادولوژی او و نظریات دولوز و گتاری پیرامون اتصال و هم‌پیوندی امور در جامعه، تا سلسله نظریات و رویکردهایی با عنوان مادیگرایان جدید که توسط کسانی ازجمله هاراوی، باراد، برایدویتی و جان بنت نمایندگی می‌شوند، و در نهایت برخی از رویکردهای حیطه علم‌‌وفن‌آوری و به‌طورویژه نظریه کنشگر-شبکه، که مطرح‌ترین چهره آن برونو لاتور است، همگی را می‌توان در ذیل این رویکرد قرار داد. چیزی که تمامی این رویکردها را به‌هم نزدیک کرده است، گریز از عاملیت‌بخشیِ صرفاانسانی و نیل و میل به‌سوی ارایه‌ی عاملیت‌های نامتجانس است که کنشگری در جامعه را محدود به انسان نمی‌دانند و هم‌چنین همگی از دوگانگی‌هایی چون سوژه و ابژه، انسان و طبیعت، ساختار و عاملیت و... می‌گریزند. اما منظور از عاملیت‌های نامتجانس چیست؟ پس از واکاوی مهم‌ترین ابعاد این رویکردها، که با روش مطالعات اسنادی صورت گرفت، درنهایت با ارایه مدلی مفهومی، سعی می‌شود به این پرسش پاسخ داده شود. در میان اشتراکاتی که پیرامون مفهوم و چیستی عاملیت در تمامی این رویکردها می‌توان برشمرد، تجانس و چند وجهی بودن مهم‌ترین ویژگی آن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Heterogeneous Agencies in More-Than-Human Sociology; Analysis the Place of Agency in Approaches of More-Than-Human Sociology by Focusing on Actor-Network Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davoud Zahrani 1
  • Ali Rabbanikhorasgani 2
  • Rahman Sharifzadeh 3
  • Ali Ghanbaribarzian 4

1 Ph.D. candidate, Sociology, University of Isfahan

2 Professor, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, University of Isfahan

3 Assistant professor, Assistant professor, Research Institute for information science and technology (IranDoc)

4 Assistant professor, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, University of Isfahan

چکیده [English]

One of popular and well-known discussions in literature of new sociology is the groups of approaches that are known and presented as “More-than-human”. These approaches are included from many theories and attitudes, from classic sociology of Gabriel Tarde, and his theory as Monadology, and Deleuze and Guattari, related to Assemblage and relation and connection of everything in society, to some approaches as “New Materialism” or “Vital Materialism”, which were explained by Harway, Barad, Braidotti, Benet, and finally, some approaches of Science and Technology, particularly Actor-Network theory, which its most well-known character is Bruno Latour, thye are all considered as approaches of more-than-human sociology. What made all of these approaches close to each other is avoiding of considering agency just for human, and their desire toward expressing the heterogeneous agencies. They try not to limit agencies of society to only human and also they all avoid the dualities as subject-object and human-nature. What does really mean agencies and heterogeneous agencies in these approaches? This article after analysis of the most important theories of these approaches, at last by presenting a conceptual model, tried to answer this question and clear the meaning of this concept and the identity of that.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • More-than-human Sociology
  • New Materialism
  • Actor-Network
  • Assemblage
  • Agency
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